Original research articles

Agrobiological and wine quality traits of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot clones selected in Serbia

Abstract

Aims: The selection of cv. Merlot clones performed in the Grocka winegrowing region, Republic of Serbia, and the study of agrobiological and technological traits of three selected clones and Merlot standard.

Methods and results: The selection of clones was done using the method of individual clone selection in four phases over 15-20 years (Cindrić, 2003). O.I.V. methods were used in determining the most important agrobiological and economic-technological traits of grapes. The results of studied traits of grape and wine suggest that the quality of the clones surpassed the quality of the standard. Although the highest values for most of the studied traits were obtained for clone 025, there was no statistically significant difference between the clones. Indeed, the significant distinction between the clones was obtained for total polyphenol content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) in wines: the wine of clone 025 had the highest TPC and TAC values. According to the tasting scores, wines of the clones may be classified as "quality wines with geographical indications".

Conclusion: The selected clones were characterised by good quality grapes and wines. Improved viticultural parameters, versus the mother vine, indicate the need for further research work on the chemistry of both grapes and wines, aiming to better understand the characteristics of the selected clones and their market potential. Significance and impact of the study: The development of new clones (namely 022, 025 and 029) of better quality than the mother vine will, in the long term, lead to the introduction of the best clone(s) in viticultural practices and production. Until today, the clonal selection of Merlot has not been done in the Republic of Serbia and there are no recognised clones.

Partie1

This working paper explores recent debates about teaching the Holocaust through literary representations written for and read by adolescents, asking how we can witness this event without idealizing or mythologizing victims and without necessarily ascribing coherent meaning to their experiences. Holocaust memoirs, such as the Diary of a Young Girl, by Anne Frank and Night by Elie Wiesel, are now being supplemented by more recent works that employ different narrative strategies and call for new forms of witnessing in classrooms and for new ways of reading the Holocaust. A final version of this paper was published in Vol 15, No 4, (2002) and is printed here with the permission of Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.

Partie2

In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in how young adults can witness traumatic historical events, such as the Holocaust, through memoir and fiction (e.g., Baer, 2000; Britzman, 2000; Kertzer, 1999; Ozick, 2000; Russell, 1997). This critical work has begun to ask more difficult questions about how the Holocaust can be rendered for younger readers without mythologizing or idealizing its victims and without necessarily ascribing coherent meaning(s) to their experiences particularly when those victims came of age in the context of deportation and concentration camps during World War II. One site of this debate is a piece of literature most commonly read by adolescents during their middle or secondary school years -- The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank.

Figure 1. Study area in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming with diffusive sampling sites and well pad locations.

Natural gas wells active in 2011 in the Pinedale Anticline (grey) and the Jonah Field (black) developments are shown together with locations of diffusive sampling sites (blue and red as labeled).

After many years of being read as a narrative of innocence and optimism, recent arguments have swirled around the work, disrupting its status as an exemplar of literary representations of the Holocaust experience for young adults and examining the ways in which Anne Frank's story has been rewritten, becoming a "subversion of history." In her recent biography of Anne Frank, which received much press for including a description of the pages that were taken out of the most commonly used version of the diary, Melissa Muller (1998) writes: Over the past fifty years, Ann Frank has become a universal symbol of the oppressed in a world of violence and tyranny. Her name invokes humanity, tolerance, human rights, and democracy; her image is the epitome of optimism and the will to live. Millions of people have felt kinship with her and revere her as a heroine. Her diary -- required reading in schools throughout the world -- has been interpreted as an eternal testament of courage and hope, relevant to all. Some of the things she wrote have acquired near proverbial status, and -- often taken out of context -- they have been used as slogans for any number of points of view. If there were Jewish saints, someone would probably have long since proposed her beatification (p. ix).

Partie3

As Miep Geis, the woman who is credited with hiding the Franks and recovering the diary, has also noted, "Anne cannot and should not stand for the many individuals who were robbed of their lives" (cited by Mueller, 1988, p. 305). Cynthia Ozick, novelist and essayist, would agree. In her recent collection of essays, Quarrel and Quandary (2000), she writes: "... the diary itself, richly crammed through it is with incident and passion, cannot count as Anne Frank's story. A story may not be said to be a story if the end is missing. And because the end is missing, the story of Anne Frank in the fifty years since The Diary of a Young Girl was first published has been bowdlerized, distorted, transmuted, traduced, reduced; It has been infantilized, Americanized, homogenized, sentimentalized; falsified, kitschified, and, in fact, blatantly and arrogantly denied...A deeply truth-telling work has been turned into an instrument of partial truth, surrogate truth, or anti-truth...Almost every hand that has approached the diary with the well-meaning intention of publicizing it has contributed to the subversion of history" (pp. 77-78).

Table 1. Overview of methodology quality assurance


Species Analysis group Accuracy Detection limit
O RTI Int. 15% 3 ppbv
NO RTI Int. 20% 0.3 ppbv
BTEX Air Toxics Inc. 30% 0.1 ppbv
VOC ERLAP 20% 0.1 ppbv

First uncertainties in parentheses are either NIST, SIO, Empa or KRISS, followed by the second uncertainty for NOAA for the reported value in the comparison; expanded uncertainties at the approximate 95% confidence interval

As Ozick goes on to argue, the book is often hailed as a tribute to the human spirit, a song to life, -- in which the most often quoted line is "I still believe, in spite of everything, that people are truly good at heart" as opposed to passages such as "I see the world being transformed into a wilderness, I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us, too..." In other words, as a Holocaust document, the Diary of A Young Girl it is an incomplete testimony; and in some sense is only completed in Bergen-Belsen, where Anne Frank died, covered with lice, and suffering from Typhus, some weeks before the end of W.W.II. Lawrence Langer, in his introduction to Art from the ashes (1995) explains why he does not include the Diary in his collection: "Those who would convert death in Auschwitz or Bergen-Belsen into a triumph of love over hate feed deep and obscure needs in themselves having little to do with the truth...the best Holocaust literature gazes into the depths without flinching (p 7)." A recent television film based on Mueller's biography and produced by the Walt Disney company attempts to finish Anne Frank's story by including footage of her family's relocation to a Dutch camp and her deportation first to Auschwitz and then to Bergen-Belsen where, in the last scene, she is seen emaciated and covered with sores, and holding her dead sister. However, as Julie Salamon argues in the New York Times, this version is told without vilifying the perpetrators and with a kind of lingering "contemporary wishy-washy humanism" and simple moralism (Salamon, 2001). And while Mueller's biography and the movie re-insert the elided images of Anne Frank's sexual awakening and her perception of her parents" marriage (Mueller, 1998, p. 274), there is no actual language used from the diary thus erasing her voice and, again perhaps, subverting history. Anne Frank , destined to never to have final control over her own words, memories, or her body, even before her deportation, chose to edit her own voice across her two years in hiding, particularly with respect to her initial explorations of her body which she viewed a year later with embarrassment, inscribing shame onto her body like so many adolescent girls learn to do: "I forgot to mention the important news that I am probably going to get my period soon. I can tell because I keep finding a whitish smear in my panties... [The diary of a young girl: The definitive edition, 1995, Nov. 2nd 1942]... I wouldn't be able to write that kind of thing anymore. Now that I am re-reading my diary after a year and a half, I'm surprised at my childish innocence...it embarrasses me greatly.... [Jan. 22, 1944]".

Authors


Dragan S. Vujović

Affiliation : Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia


Dragoljub M. Žunić

Affiliation : Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia


Blaženka S. Popović

Affiliation : Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia


Milica M. Pantelić

Affiliation : Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia


Jelena B. Popović-Djordjević

Affiliation : Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia

jelenadj@agrif.bg.ac.rs

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