Aim: The objective of the present study was to assess the ripening of grapes collected at different stages of maturation between the “véraison” and harvest periods from mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) analysis.
Methods and results: Grape berries of Cabernet Franc collected in two locations of the Loire Valley region (Touraine and Anjou), from 28 vine plots and during two vintages (2005 and 2006) were analysed. With principal component analysis (PCA) of spectral data of grape musts, different levels of ripening were described during the three to four weeks before harvest. A separation according to origin (Touraine or Anjou) was also observed and confirmed by the results of partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis (88 % of correct classification). Similar evolutions and geographical discriminations were obtained for specific physicochemical parameters. By PLS regression, good predictions of titratable acidity and sugar concentration from berry spectral data were obtained, with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.53 g/L for titratable acidity (expressed in H2SO4) and 8 g/L for sugar concentration. Moreover, when the data from only one of the regions were considered, the predictions of titratable acidity and sugar concentration were improved and those of real acidity (pH) and maturity index were then satisfactory. The RMSEP values for samples from Touraine and Anjou were reduced, respectively, to 0.05 and 0.02 units for pH, 0.4 and 0.12 g/L for titratable acidity (expressed in H2SO4), 6.6 and 3.2 g/L for sugar concentration, and 5 and 2.2 units for maturity index.
Conclusion: Spectroscopic and classic chemical analyses of grape berries yielded highly similar results. The evolution of berries from “véraison” to harvest can be characterized according to both time course and region. The samples showed similar PCA results for chemical and IR spectra parameters. PLS regression between chemical and spectral data showed that Fourier transform IR is a good method to predict acidity and sugar concentration throughout ripening. And the results for these parameters, as well as for pH, maturity index and anthocyanin concentration, are improved if the regressions are calculated from sample sets restricted to a single growing region. Consequently, a calibration model is required for each grape geographical origin.
Significance and impact of the study: The potential of MIRS was demonstrated for the quantification of the main indicators of maturity during berry ripening. Furthermore, these spectra can be used to estimate grape maturity in particular in reference to a spectral database established over several years of study. The association infrared spectroscopy, chemometric methods and database will help to monitor ripening and to determine the optimum harvest date.
AttachmentsNo supporting information for this article