Aim: To study the salinity tolerance of own rooted grape cuttings taken from nine table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) genotypes growing in the Urmia Salt Lake region (Iran): LaaleBidaneh, Gharashani, Sachagh, Shahroodi, LaaleSefid, Khalili, Chawga, GhezelUzum and Gharagandomeh.
Methods and results: Plants were treated with nutrient solutions containing 0, 25, 50 and 100 mM NaCl for two weeks. Shoot and root growth and dry weights (DW) were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in all treatments. Chloride (Cl-) and sodium (Na+) ions highly accumulated in the various parts of the vines with increasing external NaCl concentration. Na+ accumulation exceeded that of Cl- in all treatments and all genotypes. However, Gharashani showed a higher ability to restrict Cl- and Na+ accumulation in lamina (1.08% of DW and 2.56% of DW, respectively) in comparison to the other genotypes, particularly to GhezelUzum (4.1% of DW and 9.10% of DW, respectively), which showed intensive leaf burn symptoms. Lamina soluble sugar, proline and glycine betaine contents increased with increasing salinity. Correlation analysis (P<0.01) indicated that there was a high positive correlation between Cl- and Na+ contents and osmolyte accumulation in lamina.
Conclusion: Taken together, it seems that Gharashani and GhezelUzum, respectively, had a higher and a lower capacity to alleviate salt stress symptoms when compared to the other genotypes.
Significance and impact of the study: Salinity is a serious environmental stress in the regions around Urmia Salt Lake and grapevine is one of the most economically important fruit crops in Urmia. Therefore, screening the native grape genotypes for salt tolerance and using the tolerant genotypes directly as rootstocks or producing hybrids with desirable traits could be one of the improvement programs for viticulture in this area.
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