Original research articles

Evolution of anthocyanin profile from grape to wine


Aims: This study aimed at acquiring knowledge of the evolution of anthocyanins from grape to wine and the possibility of deducing the varietal origin of a wine from its anthocyanin profile.

Methods and results: The anthocyanin « fingerprint », or profile, of a series of autochthonous Sicilian accessions and their respective young wines was determined by HPLC-DAD in 2008. Data were evaluated by taking into account the evolution of the percentages of side-ring di-oxygenated and tri-oxygenated anthocyanins, the ratio between acetylated and p-coumaroylated derivatives, and the principal component analysis (PCA) results. From grape to the end of alcoholic fermentation, the percentages of 3-glucosides of cyanidin, peonidin, delphinidin and p-coumaroylglucosides decreased, whereas those of malvidin-3-glucoside, acetylated derivatives and, in some cases, petunidin-3-glucoside increased. In many but not all wines, after malolactic fermentation, the percentages of p-coumaroylated derivatives decreased further and those of cyanidin-3-glucoside and acetylated derivatives increased ; less variation was observed in malvidin-3-glucoside values.

Conclusions: From grapes to young wines, the anthocyanin profiles varied mainly because of the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. However, they were substantially retained in wines from varieties in which tri-oxygenated side-ring anthocyanins prevailed, but were dramatically different from the respective grapes in wines from varieties rich in di-oxygenated anthocyanins, or in which the di-oxygenated forms prevailed over the tri-oxygenated ones. PCA analysis confirmed these findings.

Significance and impact of the study: Only in varieties in which the anthocyanin profile of grapes is characterized by low percentages of di-oxygenated side-ring forms is it possible to gain information about the varietal origin of a young wine by comparing the profiles of both grape and wine. However, great care is required.


Margherita Squadrito


Affiliation : centro per l’innovazione della Filiera Vitivinicola, Marsala, Assessorato Agricoltura e Foreste, Regione Siciliana, Marsala (TP), Italy

Onofrio Corona

Affiliation : Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Tecnologie Agro-Forestali, Facoltà di Agraria, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze 13, 90128 Palermo, Italy

Giacomo Ansaldi

Affiliation : Centro per l’Innovazione della Filiera Vitivinicola, Marsala, Assessorato Agricoltura e Foreste, Regione Siciliana, Marsala (TP), Italy

Rocco Di Stefano

Affiliation : Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura - Centro di Ricerca per l’Enologia, Via Pietro Micca 35, 14100 Asti, Italy


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