Aims: We report the genetic, phenological, agronomic and ampelographic characterization of 27 minor grapevine accessions (Vitis vinifera L.) from the Balearic Islands (Spain). The influence of occasional climatic phenomena (hailstorm) and the ampelographer’s experience on these characteristics was studied.
Methods and results: In 2006 and 2007, grapevine accessions were analyzed using 57 OIV (Office International de la Vigne et du Vin) qualitative and quantitative descriptors and six microsatellite loci (SSR). Ampelography is a good preliminary technique for the identification of plant material, since the ampelographic description carried out showed a high degree of similarity between the repetitions of one single accession (higher than 90%), confirming the microsatellite results. The colour of the young leaf’s upper side (OIV-051), the juiciness of the flesh (OIV-232) and the firmness of berry flesh (OIV-235) were the most difficult characters to distinguish by ampelographers. In spite of the greater similarity found among the varieties studied, there were a few strong discriminant characters (OIV-225, OIV-084, OIV-053, and OIV-004). In addition, the ampelographic descriptions, agronomic parameters and phenology were influenced by hailstorm.
Conclusions: The combination of morphological and molecular characterizations of 27 accessions collected in the Balearic Islands (Spain) allowed their classification into 17 different vine varieties. The genetic analysis identified Beba blanca as a possible somatic mutant derived from Beba roja. The hailstorm increased the vegetative period and mostly affected mature leaves, bunches, agronomic characteristics and must composition.
Significance and impact of the study: The present work characterizes, for the first time, the ampelographic and molecular profiles of these minor varieties. It is provide agronomic information about old cultivars never published before which could be interesting for the grape growers.
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